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4-3: Nubia and Kush

Trade route
Trading network

Nubia: Ancient Land that stretched from the s. border of Egypt to the city of Khartoum in Sudan.
Egyptians used it for trade and to get goods from central Africa (ostrich eggs, bird feathers, ivory tusks, spices, gold, and ebony wood)
Began as early as 7000 BC
Some of the first people to make ceramic (baked) clay pottery
Egypt traded for a while but realized if they controlled Nubias trade routes they would have more wealth so Egypt took over trade
Eventually they took over their natural resources as well
Gold and granite (to make obelisks)
***Eventually Egypt annexed northern Nubia to make it part of Egypt and Nubians fled and created the kingdom of Kush just above the White Nile and the Blue Nile
The Nubians took back their independence and flourished
To bury the dead: round pit, gold covered wooden funeral bed at bottom. Dressed king in finest clothes, laid in bed, weapons and treasures all around, covered in dirt, outlined with skulls of cattle to show the kings wealth.
When the Hyksos took control of Egypt the Nubians used that as an opportunity to take some control of Southern Egypt and parts of Sudan. They chose to ally themselves with the Hyksos.
When Hyksos fell the Egyptian pharroh began building a new empire and in turn invaded Nubia and took more land than before. 
Egypt built cities all over Nubia and controlled them for 550 years
Fighting Back:
1075 B.C. Weak Dynasties = disorder (Kush’s leaders realized this)
In 700s B.C. Kushite king Kashta invaded
By 750 the armies had taken control of Upper Egypt
By 770 B.C. Kashta’s son Piye conquered Lower Egypt = complete Kushite Control
Ruled for 70 years (dynasty 25, Kushite Dynasty)

Loss of Power:
Assyrians invaded in 671 B.C.
Picked up and moved Meroe (far south just above White and Blue Niles)
Meroe became a trade center
Maroitic writing has not been deciphered yet so we do not know what their words say